Certified Physician Executive (CPE) is awarded to physician executives who have reached a superior level of excellence in medical management, with the education, expertise, and demonstrated skills to effectively lead health care organizations in today's challenging markets. They have provided contributions to the field of medical management over and above the applicant's job function and those that extend well beyond the local organization of employment. This is generally demonstrated through published articles and books, papers, teaching, research, and/or service to the profession. Typically CPE's have written articles that have appeared in peer-reviewed journals, or books or book chapters on medical management topics to gain recognition as an author and expert. Additionally, CPE's gaining recognition as an expert in one's field through repeated opportunities to teach. This can also be demonstrated through participation on a regional or national level in professional, organizational or governmental initiatives that touch on health care from a policy or regulatory perspective. Serving in the committee and management structures of such organizations provides evidence of contribution to the profession beyond the scope of employment.